loxxfftLibrary "loxxfft"
This code is a library for performing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations. FFT is an algorithm that can quickly compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence. The library includes functions for performing FFTs on both real and complex data. It also includes functions for fast correlation and convolution, which are operations that can be performed efficiently using FFTs. Additionally, the library includes functions for fast sine and cosine transforms.
Reference:
www.alglib.net
fastfouriertransform(a, nn, inversefft)
Returns Fast Fourier Transform
Parameters:
a (float ) : float , An array of real and imaginary parts of the function values. The real part is stored at even indices, and the imaginary part is stored at odd indices.
nn (int) : int, The number of function values. It must be a power of two, but the algorithm does not validate this.
inversefft (bool) : bool, A boolean value that indicates the direction of the transformation. If True, it performs the inverse FFT; if False, it performs the direct FFT.
Returns: float , Modifies the input array a in-place, which means that the transformed data (the FFT result for direct transformation or the inverse FFT result for inverse transformation) will be stored in the same array a after the function execution. The transformed data will have real and imaginary parts interleaved, with the real parts at even indices and the imaginary parts at odd indices.
realfastfouriertransform(a, tnn, inversefft)
Returns Real Fast Fourier Transform
Parameters:
a (float ) : float , A float array containing the real-valued function samples.
tnn (int) : int, The number of function values (must be a power of 2, but the algorithm does not validate this condition).
inversefft (bool) : bool, A boolean flag that indicates the direction of the transformation (True for inverse, False for direct).
Returns: float , Modifies the input array a in-place, meaning that the transformed data (the FFT result for direct transformation or the inverse FFT result for inverse transformation) will be stored in the same array a after the function execution.
fastsinetransform(a, tnn, inversefst)
Returns Fast Discrete Sine Conversion
Parameters:
a (float ) : float , An array of real numbers representing the function values.
tnn (int) : int, Number of function values (must be a power of two, but the code doesn't validate this).
inversefst (bool) : bool, A boolean flag indicating the direction of the transformation. If True, it performs the inverse FST, and if False, it performs the direct FST.
Returns: float , The output is the transformed array 'a', which will contain the result of the transformation.
fastcosinetransform(a, tnn, inversefct)
Returns Fast Discrete Cosine Transform
Parameters:
a (float ) : float , This is a floating-point array representing the sequence of values (time-domain) that you want to transform. The function will perform the Fast Cosine Transform (FCT) or the inverse FCT on this input array, depending on the value of the inversefct parameter. The transformed result will also be stored in this same array, which means the function modifies the input array in-place.
tnn (int) : int, This is an integer value representing the number of data points in the input array a. It is used to determine the size of the input array and control the loops in the algorithm. Note that the size of the input array should be a power of 2 for the Fast Cosine Transform algorithm to work correctly.
inversefct (bool) : bool, This is a boolean value that controls whether the function performs the regular Fast Cosine Transform or the inverse FCT. If inversefct is set to true, the function will perform the inverse FCT, and if set to false, the regular FCT will be performed. The inverse FCT can be used to transform data back into its original form (time-domain) after the regular FCT has been applied.
Returns: float , The resulting transformed array is stored in the input array a. This means that the function modifies the input array in-place and does not return a new array.
fastconvolution(signal, signallen, response, negativelen, positivelen)
Convolution using FFT
Parameters:
signal (float ) : float , This is an array of real numbers representing the input signal that will be convolved with the response function. The elements are numbered from 0 to SignalLen-1.
signallen (int) : int, This is an integer representing the length of the input signal array. It specifies the number of elements in the signal array.
response (float ) : float , This is an array of real numbers representing the response function used for convolution. The response function consists of two parts: one corresponding to positive argument values and the other to negative argument values. Array elements with numbers from 0 to NegativeLen match the response values at points from -NegativeLen to 0, respectively. Array elements with numbers from NegativeLen+1 to NegativeLen+PositiveLen correspond to the response values in points from 1 to PositiveLen, respectively.
negativelen (int) : int, This is an integer representing the "negative length" of the response function. It indicates the number of elements in the response function array that correspond to negative argument values. Outside the range , the response function is considered zero.
positivelen (int) : int, This is an integer representing the "positive length" of the response function. It indicates the number of elements in the response function array that correspond to positive argument values. Similar to negativelen, outside the range , the response function is considered zero.
Returns: float , The resulting convolved values are stored back in the input signal array.
fastcorrelation(signal, signallen, pattern, patternlen)
Returns Correlation using FFT
Parameters:
signal (float ) : float ,This is an array of real numbers representing the signal to be correlated with the pattern. The elements are numbered from 0 to SignalLen-1.
signallen (int) : int, This is an integer representing the length of the input signal array.
pattern (float ) : float , This is an array of real numbers representing the pattern to be correlated with the signal. The elements are numbered from 0 to PatternLen-1.
patternlen (int) : int, This is an integer representing the length of the pattern array.
Returns: float , The signal array containing the correlation values at points from 0 to SignalLen-1.
tworealffts(a1, a2, a, b, tn)
Returns Fast Fourier Transform of Two Real Functions
Parameters:
a1 (float ) : float , An array of real numbers, representing the values of the first function.
a2 (float ) : float , An array of real numbers, representing the values of the second function.
a (float ) : float , An output array to store the Fourier transform of the first function.
b (float ) : float , An output array to store the Fourier transform of the second function.
tn (int) : float , An integer representing the number of function values. It must be a power of two, but the algorithm doesn't validate this condition.
Returns: float , The a and b arrays will contain the Fourier transform of the first and second functions, respectively. Note that the function overwrites the input arrays a and b.
█ Detailed explaination of each function
Fast Fourier Transform
The fastfouriertransform() function takes three input parameters:
1. a: An array of real and imaginary parts of the function values. The real part is stored at even indices, and the imaginary part is stored at odd indices.
2. nn: The number of function values. It must be a power of two, but the algorithm does not validate this.
3. inversefft: A boolean value that indicates the direction of the transformation. If True, it performs the inverse FFT; if False, it performs the direct FFT.
The function performs the FFT using the Cooley-Tukey algorithm, which is an efficient algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse. The Cooley-Tukey algorithm recursively breaks down the DFT of a sequence into smaller DFTs of subsequences, leading to a significant reduction in computational complexity. The algorithm's time complexity is O(n log n), where n is the number of samples.
The fastfouriertransform() function first initializes variables and determines the direction of the transformation based on the inversefft parameter. If inversefft is True, the isign variable is set to -1; otherwise, it is set to 1.
Next, the function performs the bit-reversal operation. This is a necessary step before calculating the FFT, as it rearranges the input data in a specific order required by the Cooley-Tukey algorithm. The bit-reversal is performed using a loop that iterates through the nn samples, swapping the data elements according to their bit-reversed index.
After the bit-reversal operation, the function iteratively computes the FFT using the Cooley-Tukey algorithm. It performs calculations in a loop that goes through different stages, doubling the size of the sub-FFT at each stage. Within each stage, the Cooley-Tukey algorithm calculates the butterfly operations, which are mathematical operations that combine the results of smaller DFTs into the final DFT. The butterfly operations involve complex number multiplication and addition, updating the input array a with the computed values.
The loop also calculates the twiddle factors, which are complex exponential factors used in the butterfly operations. The twiddle factors are calculated using trigonometric functions, such as sine and cosine, based on the angle theta. The variables wpr, wpi, wr, and wi are used to store intermediate values of the twiddle factors, which are updated in each iteration of the loop.
Finally, if the inversefft parameter is True, the function divides the result by the number of samples nn to obtain the correct inverse FFT result. This normalization step is performed using a loop that iterates through the array a and divides each element by nn.
In summary, the fastfouriertransform() function is an implementation of the Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm, which is an efficient algorithm for computing the DFT and its inverse. This FFT library can be used for a variety of applications, such as signal processing, image processing, audio processing, and more.
Feal Fast Fourier Transform
The realfastfouriertransform() function performs a fast Fourier transform (FFT) specifically for real-valued functions. The FFT is an efficient algorithm used to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse, which are fundamental tools in signal processing, image processing, and other related fields.
This function takes three input parameters:
1. a - A float array containing the real-valued function samples.
2. tnn - The number of function values (must be a power of 2, but the algorithm does not validate this condition).
3. inversefft - A boolean flag that indicates the direction of the transformation (True for inverse, False for direct).
The function modifies the input array a in-place, meaning that the transformed data (the FFT result for direct transformation or the inverse FFT result for inverse transformation) will be stored in the same array a after the function execution.
The algorithm uses a combination of complex-to-complex FFT and additional transformations specific to real-valued data to optimize the computation. It takes into account the symmetry properties of the real-valued input data to reduce the computational complexity.
Here's a detailed walkthrough of the algorithm:
1. Depending on the inversefft flag, the initial values for ttheta, c1, and c2 are determined. These values are used for the initial data preprocessing and post-processing steps specific to the real-valued FFT.
2. The preprocessing step computes the initial real and imaginary parts of the data using a combination of sine and cosine terms with the input data. This step effectively converts the real-valued input data into complex-valued data suitable for the complex-to-complex FFT.
3. The complex-to-complex FFT is then performed on the preprocessed complex data. This involves bit-reversal reordering, followed by the Cooley-Tukey radix-2 decimation-in-time algorithm. This part of the code is similar to the fastfouriertransform() function you provided earlier.
4. After the complex-to-complex FFT, a post-processing step is performed to obtain the final real-valued output data. This involves updating the real and imaginary parts of the transformed data using sine and cosine terms, as well as the values c1 and c2.
5. Finally, if the inversefft flag is True, the output data is divided by the number of samples (nn) to obtain the inverse DFT.
The function does not return a value explicitly. Instead, the transformed data is stored in the input array a. After the function execution, you can access the transformed data in the a array, which will have the real part at even indices and the imaginary part at odd indices.
Fast Sine Transform
This code defines a function called fastsinetransform that performs a Fast Discrete Sine Transform (FST) on an array of real numbers. The function takes three input parameters:
1. a (float array): An array of real numbers representing the function values.
2. tnn (int): Number of function values (must be a power of two, but the code doesn't validate this).
3. inversefst (bool): A boolean flag indicating the direction of the transformation. If True, it performs the inverse FST, and if False, it performs the direct FST.
The output is the transformed array 'a', which will contain the result of the transformation.
The code starts by initializing several variables, including trigonometric constants for the sine transform. It then sets the first value of the array 'a' to 0 and calculates the initial values of 'y1' and 'y2', which are used to update the input array 'a' in the following loop.
The first loop (with index 'jx') iterates from 2 to (tm + 1), where 'tm' is half of the number of input samples 'tnn'. This loop is responsible for calculating the initial sine transform of the input data.
The second loop (with index 'ii') is a bit-reversal loop. It reorders the elements in the array 'a' based on the bit-reversed indices of the original order.
The third loop (with index 'ii') iterates while 'n' is greater than 'mmax', which starts at 2 and doubles each iteration. This loop performs the actual Fast Discrete Sine Transform. It calculates the sine transform using the Danielson-Lanczos lemma, which is a divide-and-conquer strategy for calculating Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs) efficiently.
The fourth loop (with index 'ix') is responsible for the final phase adjustments needed for the sine transform, updating the array 'a' accordingly.
The fifth loop (with index 'jj') updates the array 'a' one more time by dividing each element by 2 and calculating the sum of the even-indexed elements.
Finally, if the 'inversefst' flag is True, the code scales the transformed data by a factor of 2/tnn to get the inverse Fast Sine Transform.
In summary, the code performs a Fast Discrete Sine Transform on an input array of real numbers, either in the direct or inverse direction, and returns the transformed array. The algorithm is based on the Danielson-Lanczos lemma and uses a divide-and-conquer strategy for efficient computation.
Fast Cosine Transform
This code defines a function called fastcosinetransform that takes three parameters: a floating-point array a, an integer tnn, and a boolean inversefct. The function calculates the Fast Cosine Transform (FCT) or the inverse FCT of the input array, depending on the value of the inversefct parameter.
The Fast Cosine Transform is an algorithm that converts a sequence of values (time-domain) into a frequency domain representation. It is closely related to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and can be used in various applications, such as signal processing and image compression.
Here's a detailed explanation of the code:
1. The function starts by initializing a number of variables, including counters, intermediate values, and constants.
2. The initial steps of the algorithm are performed. This includes calculating some trigonometric values and updating the input array a with the help of intermediate variables.
3. The code then enters a loop (from jx = 2 to tnn / 2). Within this loop, the algorithm computes and updates the elements of the input array a.
4. After the loop, the function prepares some variables for the next stage of the algorithm.
5. The next part of the algorithm is a series of nested loops that perform the bit-reversal permutation and apply the FCT to the input array a.
6. The code then calculates some additional trigonometric values, which are used in the next loop.
7. The following loop (from ix = 2 to tnn / 4 + 1) computes and updates the elements of the input array a using the previously calculated trigonometric values.
8. The input array a is further updated with the final calculations.
9. In the last loop (from j = 4 to tnn), the algorithm computes and updates the sum of elements in the input array a.
10. Finally, if the inversefct parameter is set to true, the function scales the input array a to obtain the inverse FCT.
The resulting transformed array is stored in the input array a. This means that the function modifies the input array in-place and does not return a new array.
Fast Convolution
This code defines a function called fastconvolution that performs the convolution of a given signal with a response function using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. Convolution is a mathematical operation used in signal processing to combine two signals, producing a third signal representing how the shape of one signal is modified by the other.
The fastconvolution function takes the following input parameters:
1. float signal: This is an array of real numbers representing the input signal that will be convolved with the response function. The elements are numbered from 0 to SignalLen-1.
2. int signallen: This is an integer representing the length of the input signal array. It specifies the number of elements in the signal array.
3. float response: This is an array of real numbers representing the response function used for convolution. The response function consists of two parts: one corresponding to positive argument values and the other to negative argument values. Array elements with numbers from 0 to NegativeLen match the response values at points from -NegativeLen to 0, respectively. Array elements with numbers from NegativeLen+1 to NegativeLen+PositiveLen correspond to the response values in points from 1 to PositiveLen, respectively.
4. int negativelen: This is an integer representing the "negative length" of the response function. It indicates the number of elements in the response function array that correspond to negative argument values. Outside the range , the response function is considered zero.
5. int positivelen: This is an integer representing the "positive length" of the response function. It indicates the number of elements in the response function array that correspond to positive argument values. Similar to negativelen, outside the range , the response function is considered zero.
The function works by:
1. Calculating the length nl of the arrays used for FFT, ensuring it's a power of 2 and large enough to hold the signal and response.
2. Creating two new arrays, a1 and a2, of length nl and initializing them with the input signal and response function, respectively.
3. Applying the forward FFT (realfastfouriertransform) to both arrays, a1 and a2.
4. Performing element-wise multiplication of the FFT results in the frequency domain.
5. Applying the inverse FFT (realfastfouriertransform) to the multiplied results in a1.
6. Updating the original signal array with the convolution result, which is stored in the a1 array.
The result of the convolution is stored in the input signal array at the function exit.
Fast Correlation
This code defines a function called fastcorrelation that computes the correlation between a signal and a pattern using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. The function takes four input arguments and modifies the input signal array to store the correlation values.
Input arguments:
1. float signal: This is an array of real numbers representing the signal to be correlated with the pattern. The elements are numbered from 0 to SignalLen-1.
2. int signallen: This is an integer representing the length of the input signal array.
3. float pattern: This is an array of real numbers representing the pattern to be correlated with the signal. The elements are numbered from 0 to PatternLen-1.
4. int patternlen: This is an integer representing the length of the pattern array.
The function performs the following steps:
1. Calculate the required size nl for the FFT by finding the smallest power of 2 that is greater than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the signal and the pattern.
2. Create two new arrays a1 and a2 with the length nl and initialize them to 0.
3. Copy the signal array into a1 and pad it with zeros up to the length nl.
4. Copy the pattern array into a2 and pad it with zeros up to the length nl.
5. Compute the FFT of both a1 and a2.
6. Perform element-wise multiplication of the frequency-domain representation of a1 and the complex conjugate of the frequency-domain representation of a2.
7. Compute the inverse FFT of the result obtained in step 6.
8. Store the resulting correlation values in the original signal array.
At the end of the function, the signal array contains the correlation values at points from 0 to SignalLen-1.
Fast Fourier Transform of Two Real Functions
This code defines a function called tworealffts that computes the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of two real-valued functions (a1 and a2) using a Cooley-Tukey-based radix-2 Decimation in Time (DIT) algorithm. The FFT is a widely used algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse.
Input parameters:
1. float a1: an array of real numbers, representing the values of the first function.
2. float a2: an array of real numbers, representing the values of the second function.
3. float a: an output array to store the Fourier transform of the first function.
4. float b: an output array to store the Fourier transform of the second function.
5. int tn: an integer representing the number of function values. It must be a power of two, but the algorithm doesn't validate this condition.
The function performs the following steps:
1. Combine the two input arrays, a1 and a2, into a single array a by interleaving their elements.
2. Perform a 1D FFT on the combined array a using the radix-2 DIT algorithm.
3. Separate the FFT results of the two input functions from the combined array a and store them in output arrays a and b.
Here is a detailed breakdown of the radix-2 DIT algorithm used in this code:
1. Bit-reverse the order of the elements in the combined array a.
2. Initialize the loop variables mmax, istep, and theta.
3. Enter the main loop that iterates through different stages of the FFT.
a. Compute the sine and cosine values for the current stage using the theta variable.
b. Initialize the loop variables wr and wi for the current stage.
c. Enter the inner loop that iterates through the butterfly operations within each stage.
i. Perform the butterfly operation on the elements of array a.
ii. Update the loop variables wr and wi for the next butterfly operation.
d. Update the loop variables mmax, istep, and theta for the next stage.
4. Separate the FFT results of the two input functions from the combined array a and store them in output arrays a and b.
At the end of the function, the a and b arrays will contain the Fourier transform of the first and second functions, respectively. Note that the function overwrites the input arrays a and b.
█ Example scripts using functions contained in loxxfft
Real-Fast Fourier Transform of Price w/ Linear Regression
Real-Fast Fourier Transform of Price Oscillator
Normalized, Variety, Fast Fourier Transform Explorer
Variety RSI of Fast Discrete Cosine Transform
STD-Stepped Fast Cosine Transform Moving Average

# Convolution

convolution
Description:
Convolution indicators aim to identify a major reversal in the price direction so that one can trade the market primarily in the direction of the ensuing trend, as described in the Cycle Analytics for Traders, by John F. Ehlers pg. 165. The notion is based on the concept of the two price segments are perfectly correlated (cross-correlated) that have been folded at the horizontal point, since high correlation exists only at the market turning point, e.g. price decreases linearly until the bottom is reached and then increases linearly after the bottom occurs and vice versa. The vertical scale is the lookback period, while the value is converted to colors.
Features:
High-pass filter and Smoothing function on the input data
Major reversals are identified by plumes pointing backward to the time of the price reversal
Bullish reversal identified by the green color of the indicator,
while Bearish reversal identified by a red color dominated the indicator

Leavitt Convolution Slope [CC]The Leavitt Convolution Slope indicator was created by Jay Leavitt (Stocks and Commodities Oct 2019, page 11), who is most well known for creating the Volume-Weighted Average Price indicator. This indicator is very similar to the Leavitt Convolution indicator but the big difference is that it is getting the slope instead of predicting the next Convolution value. I changed quite a few things from the original source code so let me know if you like these changes. I added a normalization function using code from a good friend @loxx that I recommend to leave on but feel free to experiment with it. Last but not least, the unsure levels are essentially acting as a buy or sell threshold. I personally recommend to buy or sell for zero crossovers but another option would be to buy or sell for crossovers using the unsure levels. I have color coded the lines to turn light green for a normal buy signal or dark green for a strong buy signal and light red for a normal sell signal, and dark red for a strong sell signal.
This is another indicator in a series that I'm publishing to fulfill a special request from @ashok1961 so let me know if you ever have any special requests for me.

Leavitt Convolution [CC]The Leavitt Convolution indicator was created by Jay Leavitt (Stocks and Commodities Oct 2019, page 11), who is most well known for creating the Volume-Weighted Average Price indicator. This indicator is very similar to my Leavitt Projection script and I forgot to mention that both of these indicators are actually predictive moving averages. The Leavitt Convolution indicator doubles down on this idea by creating a prediction of the Leavitt Projection which is another prediction for the next bar. Obviously this means that it isn't always correct in its predictions but it does a very good job at predicting big trend changes before they happen. The recommended strategy for how to trade with these indicators is to plot a fast version and a slow version and go long when the fast version crosses over the slow version or to go short when the fast version crosses under the slow version. I have color coded the lines to turn light green for a normal buy signal or dark green for a strong buy signal and light red for a normal sell signal, and dark red for a strong sell signal.
This is another indicator in a series that I'm publishing to fulfill a special request from @ashok1961 so let me know if you ever have any special requests for me.

Ehlers Convolution Indicator [CC]The Convolution Indicator was created by John Ehlers (Cycle Analytics For Traders pgs 170-174) and this is version of an indicator to find potential reversal points. The idea behind this indicator is to use a variation of his AutoCorrelation Indicator that transforms the data using digital signal processing and as you can see it looks very similar to his BandPass Filter . The idea is that when this indicator peaks then it has reached a potential reversal point and so the stock may continue in the current direction but most of the time this indicator correctly points out the reversal points. I have included normal buy and sell signals but generally speaking you would want to buy when the indicator is around 0.05 to 0.10 and moving up and sell when it reaches its peak and is starting to move down.
Let me know if you have any other scripts you would like to see me publish!

Moving RegressionMoving Regression is a generalization of moving average and polynomial regression.
The procedure approximates a specified number of prior data points with a polynomial function of a user-defined degree. Then, polynomial interpolation of the last data point is used to construct a Moving Regression time series.
Application:
Moving Regression allows one to smooth noise on the analyzed chart, assess momentum, confirm trends, and establish areas of support and resistance.
In addition, it can be used as a simple stand-alone forecasting method to identify trend direction and trend reversal points. When the local polynomial is predicted to move up in the next time step, the color of the Moving Regression curve will be green. Otherwise, the color of the curve is red. This function is (de)activated using the Predict Trend Direction flag.
Selecting the model parameters:
The effects of the moving window Length and the Local Polynomial Degree are confounded. This allows for finding the optimal trade-off between noise (variance) and lag (bias). Higher Length and lower Polynomial Degree (such as 1, i.e. linear), will result in "smoother" time series but at the cost of greater lag. Increasing the Polynomial Degree to, for example, 2 (squared) while maintaining the Length will diminish the lag and thus compromise the noise-lag tradeoff.
Relation to other methods:
When the degree of the local polynomial is set to 0 (i.e., fitting data to a constant level), the Moving Regression time series exactly matches the Simple Moving Average of the same length.

[blackcat] L2 Ehlers Convolution IndicatorLevel: 2
Background
John F. Ehlers introduced Convolution Indicator in his "Cycle Analytics for Traders" chapter 13 on 2013.
Function
Since high correlation exists only at the market turning point, the convolution indicator is dependent on the lookback period used in the calculation. Assuming the two price segments have an equal time duration, the peak correlation occurs at half the lookback period of the indicator. For example, if a 13-bar period is used, the market peak would appear with a 7-bar delay. The same market peak would appear with a 19-bar delay if a 39-bar lookback period were used in the convolution computation.
Key Signal
Convolution --> Convolution array
Pros and Cons
100% John F. Ehlers definition translation of original work, even variable names are the same. This help readers who would like to use pine to read his book. If you had read his works, then you will be quite familiar with my code style.
Remarks
The 56th script for Blackcat1402 John F. Ehlers Week publication.
Courtesy of @RicardoSantos for RGB functions.
Readme
In real life, I am a prolific inventor. I have successfully applied for more than 60 international and regional patents in the past 12 years. But in the past two years or so, I have tried to transfer my creativity to the development of trading strategies. Tradingview is the ideal platform for me. I am selecting and contributing some of the hundreds of scripts to publish in Tradingview community. Welcome everyone to interact with me to discuss these interesting pine scripts.
The scripts posted are categorized into 5 levels according to my efforts or manhours put into these works.
Level 1 : interesting script snippets or distinctive improvement from classic indicators or strategy. Level 1 scripts can usually appear in more complex indicators as a function module or element.
Level 2 : composite indicator/strategy. By selecting or combining several independent or dependent functions or sub indicators in proper way, the composite script exhibits a resonance phenomenon which can filter out noise or fake trading signal to enhance trading confidence level.
Level 3 : comprehensive indicator/strategy. They are simple trading systems based on my strategies. They are commonly containing several or all of entry signal, close signal, stop loss, take profit, re-entry, risk management, and position sizing techniques. Even some interesting fundamental and mass psychological aspects are incorporated.
Level 4 : script snippets or functions that do not disclose source code. Interesting element that can reveal market laws and work as raw material for indicators and strategies. If you find Level 1~2 scripts are helpful, Level 4 is a private version that took me far more efforts to develop.
Level 5 : indicator/strategy that do not disclose source code. private version of Level 3 script with my accumulated script processing skills or a large number of custom functions. I had a private function library built in past two years. Level 5 scripts use many of them to achieve private trading strategy.

Leavitt Convolution & Acceleration by CryptorhythmsLeavitt Projection, Convolution, & Acceleration by Cryptorhythms
Intro
Bringing you another open source Gem this time from the January 2020 Issue of TASC.
Description
In the article in the Oct 2019 TASC issue titled "An interplanetary marriage" author Jay Leavitt describes the evolution process required in strategy design by introducing his Mars strategy. This grew out of concepts presented in his earlier TASC articles such as the stratosphere, moon rocket, and tech emini strategies. This dual indicator uses a linear regression of price data to help derive slope and acceleration information, in turn helping him to identify trends and trend turning points.
Additions
As usual a few useful extras are included such as a rudimentary signaling system, bar coloration by trade state, overbought/oversold areas to assist in algorithmic setups, and more!
👍 We hope you enjoyed this indicator and find it useful! We post free crypto analysis, strategies and indicators regularly. This is our 71st script on Tradingview!
💬Check my Signature for other information

Leavitt Convolutions Multicator - Jay Leavitt, Ph.D.Hot off the press, I present this next generation "Leavitt Convolutions Multicator" employing PSv4.0, originally formulated by Jay Leavitt, Ph.D. for TASC - January 2020 Traders Tips. Basically it's an all-in-one combination of three Leavitt indicators. This triplet indicator, being less than a 60 line implementation at initial release, is a heavily modified version of the original indicator using novel techniques, surpassing Leavitt's original intended design.
Utilizing the "Power of Pine", I included the maximum amount of features I could surmise in an ultra small yet powerful package. Configurations are displayed above in multiple scenarios that should be suitable for most traders.
Features List Includes:
Dark Background - Easily disabled in indicator Settings->Style for "Light" charts or with Pine commenting
AND much, much more... You have the source!
For those of you who are new to Pine Script, this script may also help you understand advanced programming techniques in Pine and how they may be utilized in a most effective manner. Most notably, the script shows how to potentially combine three indicators in one with Pine. This is commonly what my dense intricate code looks like behind the veil, and if you are wondering why there is no notes, that's because the notation is in the variable naming.
The comments section below is solely just for commenting and other remarks, ideas, compliments, etc... regarding only this indicator, not others. When available time provides itself, I will consider your inquiries, thoughts, and concepts presented below in the comments section, should you have any questions or comments regarding this indicator. When my indicators achieve more prevalent use by TV members, I may implement more ideas when they present themselves as worthy additions. As always, "Like" it if you simply just like it with a proper thumbs up, and also return to my scripts list occasionally for additional postings. Have a profitable future everyone!

Modulate 40 SymbolsModulates (multiplies) 40 securities
Useful for assessing breadth
Defaults with the Top 40 holdings in SPX
Change symbols to measure breadth in an ETF